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The George C. Davis Site,
Cherokee County, Texas
H. Perry Newell and Alex D. Krieger - 1941
With a new Foreword by Timothy K. Perttula

 Gustav's Library Vintage Reprint

From The New Foreword:  The George C. Davis site (41CE19)/Caddo Mounds State Historic Site in Cherokee County, Texas, is a Caddo site that was occupied by ancestral Caddo peoples between ca. A.D. 850 and the early A.D. 1300s (based on an extensive suite of calibrated radiocarbon dates) on a large alluvial terrace of the Neches River in East Texas. The site is a planned civic-ceremonial center that has three earthen mounds—Mound A, a large platform mound with elite residences and special purpose structures; Mound B, a second platform mound; and Mound C, a burial mound used as a cemetery for the elite or ranked members of the society—a borrow pit, and a large associated village (estimated at more than 110 acres) with more than 100 known or suspected structures. The structures include the domestic residences of the commoners that lived at the site as well as the residences for the elites (chiefs and religious leaders) and special structures used for ritual and ceremonial purposes.

The George C. Davis/Caddo Mounds State Historic Site is an archeological site that has yielded information of major scientific importance concerning the origins and development of the Caddo peoples, a still little-known but significant stratified and complex society that lived in the far western reaches of the Southeastern United States and whose cultural traditions have lasted for more than 1000 years. The expansive nature of the archeological investigations at the George C. Davis site since 1939 has obtained unique information on Caddo community organization and social logic, the nature of Caddo symbolism and ideology, as well as the early existence of important community political, social, and religious activities within special precincts near Mounds A and B. The archeological work has also obtained key insights into the domestic nature of the community, with residential domiciles dated as early as ca. A.D. 850 organized into compounds with small courtyards; this was not a vacant mound center. Demonstrating great continuity in Caddo community and social organization, the same kinds of domestic compounds seen ca. A.D. 850 and after at the George C. Davis site have also been documented from a 1691 map prepared by a Spanish expedition to a Nasoni Caddo civicceremonial center on the Red River in East Texas.

 

 

Excavated and geophysical architectural features.

 

Elevation map showing the location of all known (through excavation and remote sensing) Caddo structures at the site

 

From the new foreword - click on image to enlarge

 


This 8-1/4" x 10-1/2", 327 page, soft cover, facsimile reprint features 65 illustrations half of which are full page plates of artifacts, maps, charts, plans and 20 tables. $24.95

   

Plan of the Maze Davis Site Maze Sub floor Houses

Hickory Fine Incised

Excavation

Holly Fine Incised

Chipped Artifacts Mound Views Stone Artifacts

 

Table of Contents

FOREWORD
PART I. DESCRIPTION OF THE SITE, EXCAVATIONS, AND BUILDINGS
By H. Perry Newell
INTRODUCTION
HISTOHICAL BACKGROUND
EXCAVATION OF SITE
Village Area
Mound Area
Method of Recording
HOUSES
Feature 2
Feature 3
Feature 4
Feature 6
Feature 8
Feature 9
Features 10-18
Feature 19
Feature 29
Feature 30
Features 31, 37, and 38
Feature 32
Feature 33
Features 34 and 36
Feature 35
Features 39 and 40
Feature 41
Feature 42
Feature 43
Feature 44
Feature 45
Comparisons
FEATURES OTHER THAN HOUSES
PART II. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
By Alex D. Krieger PHYSICAL STRATIGRAPHY
CULTURAL STRATIGRAPHY
ANALYSIS or THE ARTIFACTS
Statement on Typology
Possible Conflicts and Overlappings with Louisiana Pottery Types
Reduction of Sherds to Vessel-Counts
Quantity of Davis Site Pottery
Plottings by Different Criteria
Rules Followed in Tabulating
DESCRIPTION OF RESIDENT (ALTO Focus) POTTERY
Holly Fine Engraved
Hickory Fine Engraved
Miscellaneous Engraved
Crockett Curvilinear Incised
Crockett-Pennington "Hybrid" Designs
Pennington Punctated-Incised
Free Punctates
Dttnkin Incised
Davis Incised
Weches Fingernail Impressed
Duren Neck Banded
Grooved Vessels
Afokajete-Wie Bowls
Bowles Creek Plain
Body Sherds
Summary
PRESUMED TRADE AND ABERRANT POTTERY
Sand-tempered or Sandy-paste Pottery
MarksviUe Incised
Rocker-Stamped
Coles Creek Incised
Sanders Engraved
Spiro Fine Engraved
Haley Focus (?) Sherds
Red-filmed
Miscellaneous Engraved
Miscellaneous Incised
Stucco (?) Decoration
Painted Decoration
Vessel Appendages
Summary
OTHER CLAY ARTIFACTS
Ear Spools
Beads
Pipes
Grooved Clay Lump
Lumps- of Pottery Clay
Carved Sherds
Disks or Spindle Whorls
"Spoons"
Figurines
STONE ARTIFACTS
Grinding Implements
Hamnierstones
Hones
"Tablet" Fragments
Pigments
Adzes and Celts
Pot-smoothing Stones
Stone Bowls
Concretionary Nodules
Quartz Crystals
Obsidian
Carved Human Head
Bead
Ear Spools
Projectile Points
Knives, Scrapers, Choppers, etc
Awls and Gravers
COPPER
FOOD REMAINS AND CHARRED MATERIAL
Vegetal Remains
Shell
Animal Bones
ASSOCIATION OF ARTIFACTS AND FOOD REMAINS WITH BUILDINGS
Feature 9
Feature 35
THE ALTO Focus
Elements Present in Phase 1
Elements Present in Phase 2
Elements Present in Phase 3
Surface Occupation by Later Group
Miscellaneous
AFFILIATIONS OF THE ALTO Focus
Position in "Caddoan" Archaeology
Position in Eastern United States
Middle American Affiliations
CONCLUSIONS
APPENDIX. MAIZE FROM THE DAVIS SITE: ITS NATURE AND INTERPRETATION
By Volney H. Jones
DISCUSSION OF THE CORN
DESCRIPTION OF THE CORN
Itemization and Description of Davis Site Corn
Characterization of Davis Site Corn
BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Illustrations

1. Map of Neches River Region
2. Areal Photograph of Mound Prairie and Neches River Bottomlands
3. Mound Views
4. General Plan of Davis Site Excavations
5. General View of Mound Excavations
6. Idealized Section of Mound
7. Primary-mound Profiles
8. Secondary-mound Features
9. Plan and Section of Feature 4
10. Plan and Section of Feature 6
11. Plan and Section of Feature 9
12. Houses on Primary Mound and Off-mound: Features 4, 6, 9, 34, 36, 39, 40
13. Group of Overlapping Houses: Features 10 to 18
14. Plan and Section of Feature 30
15. Plan and Section of Features 31, 37, and 38
16. Sub-mound Houses: Features 31, 37, and 38
17. Plan and Section of Feature 33
18. Sub-mound Houses and Miscellany
19. Plan and Section of Features 34 and 36
20. Plan and Section of Feature 35
21. Ceremonial "Maze": Feature 35
22. Plan and Section of Features 39 and 40
23. Plan and Section of Features 43 and 44
24. Plan and Section of Feature 45
25. Artifacts in Situ
26. Mound Profiles, Showing Order of Accretion of Mound Material in "Zones"
27. Perspective Drawing of Mound Phases
28. Primary-mound Platform with Buildings on Top and Near Flanks, Phase 2
29. Holly Fine Engraved: Examples of Black Pottery with "Regular" Designs
30. Holly Fine Engraved: Vessel Reconstructions
31. Holly Fine Engraved: Bottles and Corner of "Box"
32. SoUy Fine Engraved, "Stepped," and Scroll-like Engraved Designs
33. Hickory Fine Engraved, "Stepped," and Scroll-like Designs: Vessel Reconstructions
34. Miscellaneous Engraved and Incised Pottery
35. Crockett Curvilinear Incised
36. Crockett Curvilinear Incised: Vessel Reconstructions
37. Crockett Curvilinear ^Incised, Meander and "Hybrid" Designs: Vessel Reconstructions
38. Crockett Curvilinear Incised and Pennington Punctated-Incised: Variations in Punctates and Motifs
39. Pennington Punctated-Incised and Free Punctates: Vessel Reconstructions
40. Ditren Neck Banded and Miscellaneous Punctated Pottery
41. Dunkin Incised: Vessel Reconstructions
42. Dunkin Incised: Vessel Reconstructions
43. Dunkin Incised Variants (?): Vessel Reconstructions
44. Dunkin Incised Variants (?), Hickory Fine Engraved, and Bone-tempered Sherds
45. Davis Incised: Vessel Reconstructions
46. Weckes Fingernail Impressed: Vessel Reconstructions
47. Duren Neck Banded and Bowles Creek Plain: Vessel Reconstructions
48. Grooved and 3/ofco/ete-like Vessels
49. Sand-tempered Pottery
50. Presumed Trade and Aberrant Pottery
51. Presumed Trade and Aberrant Pottery—Continued
52. Vessel Appendages and Figurines
53. Various Clay and Pottery Artifacts and Stone Ear Spools
54. Various Stone Artifacts
55. Various Stone Artifacts, Pigments, Concretions
56. Chipped Artifacts: Arrow (?) Points and Various
57. Chipped Artifacts: Atlatl Dart (?) Points and Awls
58. Chipped Artifacts: Atlatl Dart (?) Points
59. Chipped Artifacts: Atlatl Dart (?) Points—Continued
60. Chipped Artifacts: Knives, Scrapers, Gouges, "Pick"
61. Chipped Artifacts: Selections from Cache of 62 Heavy Flint Blades
62. General Map of Sites Related to Davis and the Alto Focus
63. Vessels from the East Mound, Clark County, Southwest Arkansas, Robert Proctor Collection
64. Vessels from the East Mound, Clark County, Southwest Arkansas, Robert Proctor Collection
65. Vessels from the East Mound, Clark County, Southwest Arkansas, Vere L. Huddleston Collection
66. Alternative Correlation of the Alto Focus with the Mississippi Valley Sequence

Tables

1. Summary of Houses and Ceremonial Structures at Davis Site
2. Overlapping of Davis Site and Louisiana Pottery Types
3. Occurrence of Type Solly Fine Engraved in Davis Site
4. Occurrence of Type Hickory Fine Engraved in Davis Site
5. Occurrence of Miscellaneous Engraved Pottery in Davis Site
6. Occurrence of Type Crockett Curvilinear Incised and "Hybrid" Designs in Davis Site
7. Occurrence of Type Pennington Punctated-Incised and Free Punctates in Davis Site
8. Occurrence of Type Dunkin Incised in Davis Site
9. Occurrence of Type Davis Incised in Davis Site
10. Occurrence of Type Weches Fingernail Impressed in Davis Site
11. Occurrence of Minor Pottery Types in Davis Site
12. Occurrence of Presumed Trade Pottery and Aberrant Sherds in Davis Site
13. Gross Frequency of Pottery Types and Groups in Mound
14. Gross Frequency of Vessel Forms in Resident Pottery Types and Groups
15. Association of Pottery Types and Groups with Buildings
16. Association of Non-Pottery Artifacts and Food Remains with Buildings
17. Occurrence of Various Stone and Clay Artifacts and Vessel Appendages in Davis Site
18. Occurrence of Chipped Stone Artifacts in Davis Site
19. Relative Popularity of Pottery Styles in Davis Site
20. Comparison of Hopewellian and Woodland Pottery Attributes with Those of the Davis Site