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Prehistoric Ethnology of a Kentucky Site

Fox Farm - Fort Ancient

Harlan I. Smith (1898)

 Gustav's Library Vintage Reprint

Harlan I. Smith (also known for his articles on the Northwest Coast) really packs some information about the Fox Farm into this book.  It is an in-depth study of the ethnology of this site  and is very highly regarded in professional archaeological circles.  Extremely well-written and authoritative, I recommend it highly.  A look at the table of contents (below) will illustrate the scope of this work.

"The Fox Farm is situated in Mason County, Kentucky, about fourteen miles south southwest from Maysville, three miles north from May's Lick, and one mile west of the road leading from May's Lick to Maysville. It is not far from the historic Washington, made famous by Harriet Beecher Stowe in "Uncle Tom's Cabin." It is in the Algonkin linguistic area. The land is rolling, and cut by numerous creeks which discharge into the north fork of the Licking River and so their waters eventually reach the Ohio. These streams cut through nearly horizontal strata of the fossili-ferous limestone of the Ordovician (Lower Silurian). The Fox Farm lies on Lower Maysville and Upper Eden, formerly supposed to be about the equivalent of the Lorraine and Utica of the New York series. The Eden consists of shale and thin limestones, the latter of which tend to slip out on the surface of the steep hillsides under the action of frost and rain. Many of these are carried by water some distance down stream, and in places are deposited in such a way as to resemble a pavement, each piece standing on edge, but leaning down stream. The Eden outcrop is always marked by steep slopes and a relatively poor soil; the overlying Maysville, however, gives rise to good soil. Many of these slabs of limestone were carried by the prehistoric people of this vicinity to the top of the high land lying between the streams and there used in the construction of graves. There are numerous salt springs in the neighborhood which in early historic times and before, were visited by deer and other animals for the purpose of licking the salt deposited about their edges. Consequently, many of the names of the nearby villages terminate in the word "Lick." The country was heavily wooded and timber was so common that even at the time of our work there (1895) rail fences could be seen which contained rails of the now valuable black walnut."

"A large prehistoric village site, a number of graves, and mounds situated on the higher part of this farm near three natural sink holes where the underlying lime rock has dissolved have been known for many years. While Prof. Cyrus Thomas,1 refers to an enclosure known as "Fox's Fort," probably one of the sink holes, three miles northwest of May's Lick, which was reported to him by Mr. Gerard Fowke, no full account of them has been published, nor are there in any publication illustrations and descriptions characterizing the culture of the people who formerly lived there. Specimens have been collected on the surface of this site, especially by Mr. Gerard Fowke and by Col. Frederick H. Bierbower of Maysville as well as by casual visitors to the place. A considerable collection from this site may be seen in the Museum of the Public Library at Maysville."

This 7" x 10",  167 page, soft cover, facsimile reprint contains 47 full page plates.  $17.95

   

CONTENTS

Introduction
Resources in Animal and Plant Materials
Food
Materials for Manufacture, Minerals, Stone, Metals, and Clay
Bone
Antler
Teeth
Shell
Plant Materials
Securing Food
Hunting, Fishing, Gathering Wild Plant Products, and Agriculture
Points chipped out of Stone
Manufacture of Points chipped out of Stone
Points rubbed out of Antler
Manufacture of Points rubbed out of Antler
Snares, Bolas, Calls, and Charms
Fish Spears
Fish Hooks
Nets
Gathering Plant Food
Preparation of Food
Knives
Pestles and Mortars
Cooking
Pottery
Manufacture of Pottery
Strainers
Spoons
Forks
Succotash
Habitations
Caches
Mats
Tools used by Men
Celts made of Stone
Celts made of Antler
Manufacture of Celts made of Antler
Hafting and Use
Hammerstones
Pitted Stones
Whetstones
Arrow-shaft Smoothers
Chisels of Bone
Pins and Cylinders of Antler and Bone
Knives made of Beaver Teeth
Chipped Flakes
Chipped Drill Points
Tools used by Women
Scrapers chipped out of Stone
Scrapers made of Bone
Manufacture of Scrapers made of Bone
Awls
Needles
Manufacture of Needles
Spinning and Weaving
Finger Nails and Tips
 
Processes of Manufacture
Rubbing
Cutting
Drilling
Punching
Chipping
Flaking
Pecking
Modeling
Impressing
Twisting
Knitting
Painting
History of Manufactured Objects
Games, Religious Objects, Pipes, and Amusements
Tubes and Cylinders
Dice
Ring and Pin Game
Manufacture of Phalanx Bone Objects
Discs
Manufacture of Discs made of Stone
Manufacture of Discs made from Potsherds
Religious Objects
Rattles
Gorgets
Whistles
Manufacture of Whistles
Pipes
Manufacture of Pipes made of Stone
Amusements
Warfare
Dress and Adornment
Clothing Materials
Moccasins
Hair Spreaders
Combs
Beads
Pendants
Miscellaneous Ornaments
Art
Injuries and Diseases
Scalp Cuts
Arrow Wounds
Fractures
Diseased Individuals
Bones Diseased
Identification of Disease
Longevity
Method of Burial
Mounds
"Altars"
Graves
Position of the Skeleton
Plural and Bundle Burials
Artifacts in Graves
Conclusion
Bibliography

PLATES

XVII-XIX.XX-XXI. XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV-XXX.
XXXI-XXXIII.
XXXIV-XXXV.
XXXVI-XXXVII.
XXXVIII-XLII.
XLIII-XLIV.
XLV-XLVII.
XLVTII-L.
LI.
LII-LIX.
LX-LXIV.
Text Figures.

Implements used in preparing Food.
Objects used in preparing Food.
Pottery.
Tools used by Men.
Tools used by Women.
Processes of Manufacture.
Manufacture.
Games.
Pipes.
Personal Adornment.
Miscellaneous Objects.
Art.
Method of Burial.
Page. 1. Designs on Certain Stone and Pottery Objects

 

     
Sample Illustrations - click on image to enlarge